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Technology of Fountain Structure
Construction Principles and Structural Components

The construction principles of fountain technology arise from the desired objective. It always involves putting water into motion in order to produce a beautiful, eye-catching water pattern. To achieve this, adequate quantities of water must first be available. In the ideal case, a natural water reservoir in the form of a pond or lake will be available, Usually, however, a water reservoir must be constructed artificially and be filled from public water supply. Larger basins are mostly of concrete or brick, but there are also ready made basins of considerable size made from fiberglass or similar synthetics. Lakes and ponds are mostly modelled as more or less deep hollows in the ground and sealed with a membrane of bitumen or clay Once the matter of the water reservoir is settled, there is the question of the movement of the water and the water display The water movement can consist of a single, hardly perceptible, flow of waterflowing water in the form of a stream, a spring, a mult-jet fountain, a transparent water bell, a powerful high fountain, or a rushing waterfall. Under the heading 'Typology" the basic variants are described in detail. If the designer has decided on a certain
water pattern and therefore on a certain nozzle or nozzle combination, the selection of the "driving force" the fountain pump, then follows. The simplest solution is to use a submersible motor pump directly in the basin. The most important criteria for selecting the pump Is its power and efficiency - How much water can it force-over? What period at which height? - Its corrosion resistance and endurance characteristics, With these three main elements - the water reservoir, the fountain attachment and pump - a fully serviceable fountain installation can be provided. It is important with any fountain installation that these three main elements have an appropriate and harmonious relationship to each other. The size and form of the water pattern should be adapted to the shape and size of the basin. The fountain attachment ultimately selected determines the necessary water and pressure requirements. The pump selected results from the two requirements last mentioned. All other components of a fountain installation should enhance its appearance, simplify its operation and maintenance, and automate certain sequences.


Submersible pump fountain design


Fountain Components (submersible pump)


Fountain design Components

1 - Basin

Larger fountains and water displays, massive basins of concrete and stone should only be considered after due consultation with the fountain engineer, He can give important advice on the proportions and dimensions and design requirements. For example, the maximum achievable height of any water jet shall not exceed the shortest distance of that jet's base from the nearest edge of the basin. The basin depth or water depth shall be the minimum practical to reduce water usage and cleaning the basin and for prevention of accidents. The required equipment will need to be accommodated at an appropriate depth, preferably in a formed sump which must be covered with gratings. The anticipated equipment system must be taken into account at the planning and design stages.

2 - Pump Chamber

If the pump is to be dry mounted, a separate pump chamber is necessary. Since normal suction pumps are usually used, installation below the basin water level is advisable, it is therefore often necessary to build the pump chamber into the ground, Cellars if suitable, can also be used to house the pump equipment.

3 - Fountain and Nozzle Attachment

The fountain fitting models the water to create definite shapes and movements. Sculptures and simple spouts are also included in this group.

4 - Fountain Pump

The fountain pump is the driving force at the heart of the fountain unit. The pump type must be suited to the intended use (wet or dry mounting). The pumping capacity results from the water and pressure consumption of the fountain attachment used, less the friction losses of the pipe work and water distributor.

5 - Suction Filter

The suction filter mounted at the inlet of the suction pipe prevents the ingress of dirt in to the pump - nozzle circulation system. To achieve sufficiently long cycles (interval between cleanings), the suction filter should have an appropriately large filter area. Several suction filters can also be connected in parallel,There are suction filters for different nominal bores with corresponding filter areas.

6 - Basin Base Inlet

The base inlet is for the water tight entry of suction and pressure pipes through the basin base. It is made from highly corrosion - resistant material, such as stainless steel or bronze, It should be firmly cast in concrete with its concrete seal flange.

7 - Suction Pipe

The suction pipe serves the dry-mounted centrifugal pump for the suction of the water out of the fountain basin or water reservoir. lt should be adequately dirnensioned in accordance with the volumetric delivery of the pump. The flow speed in the suction pipe should not exceed 6 ft/sec.

8 - Wall Inlet

In principle the wall inlet fulfils the same function as the basin base inlet. Since there is no water pressure as with pump chamber or cellar wall inlets, the demands are of course not so high. Plastic inlets are often sufficient in this instance.

9 - Shutdown / Regulatlng

From the point of view of construction, the shutdown and regulating valves are generally the same. Fitted in the pressure pipe they serve for throttling the water volume or the fountain height if the pump is dismantled, they shut off the suction and pressure pipe and so make unnecessary a complete emptying of the basin and system Suction pipe valves should always remain fully open when the unit is operating.

10 - Pressure Pipe

The pressure pipe serves for transporting the water delivered from the pump to an outlet, fountain attachment or nozzle combination. It should be adequately dimensioned in accordance with the volumetric delivery of the pump, The flow speed of 10 ft/sec. should not be exceeded.

11 - Water Distributor

In principle the water distributer divides the flow delivered from the pressure pipe into several partial flows The volume of the water distributor should not be designed too small, Regulating valves can be provided at the outlets of the water distributor to enable different large partial flows or fountain heights to be adjusted.


Fountain Components (dry pump)


Dry Pump Application

12 - Overflow / Drain FittIng

The overflow / drain fitting is a type of stand-pipe valve, With the stand pipe inserted it allows excess basin water (rainwater) to exit through the overflow crown into the drain. The basin is emptied when the stand pipe is removed The overflow / drain fitting is the best value solution for achieving overflow and drainage.

13 - Floor Drain with Dirt Screen

The floor drain, combined with a drain valve, serves for draining the basin, It is frequently used with a wall-mounted combined fitting. The screwed on dirt screen prevents coarse debris getting into the drain pipe.

14 - Overflow Wall-Mounted
Combination Fitting

The overflow wall-mounted combination fitting is concreted into the vertical wall of fountain basins. It serves for carrying away the rainwater, for filling and refilling, with freshwater, and for mounting a water-level sensor.

15 - Freshwater Inlet Fitting

The fresh water inlet fitting for concreting into the base of fountain basins, serves for feeding and refilling fresh water. This should be sized to suit prevailing water regulations.

16 - Overflow / Drain Pipe

The overflow / drain pipe, combined with the overflow / drain fitting, serves for carrying away overflow and rain water to the channel.

17 - Overflow Pipe

The overflow pipe, combined with the wall mounted combination fitting, serves for carrying away the overflow water (rainwater) to the channel.

18 - Drain Pipe

The drain pipe, combined with the floor drain and the drain valve, serves for carrying away the basin water during the draining.

19 - Fresh water Inlet Pipe

The freshwater inlet pipe, combined with the freshwater inlet fitting or the overflow wall mounted combination fitting, serves for filling the basin and for refilling the evaporated water In public installations, refilling the evaporated water is usually ensured via an automatic electronic water-Ievel monitoring device.

20 - Solenoid Valve

The solenoid valve is controlled by the electronic water-level monitoring device and in its open state serves for refilling the fountain.

21 - Cable Entry Fitting

The cable entry fitting for concreting into the basin base or basin wall of fountain basins etc. at the end of the cable duct. It serves for the watertight insertion of electrical rubber cables.

22 - Cable Duct / Conduit

The cable duct / conduit prevents mechanical damage to the cable. Combined with the cable entry fitting. It allows easy insertion and changing of electrical rubber-sheathed cables for the electrical supply to the electric components.

23 - Underwater Cable Terminal
Connector

The underwater cable terminal connector is the connection and separative element in the electrical supply line, It allows easy connection and disconnection from the electric components.

24 - Cable Protective Rail

The cable protective rail serves for safe and proper laying of the electrical leads in the basin.

25 - Underwater Lights

By using underwater lights it is guaranteed that fountain installations are shown to good effect in the evening and night-time hours also-often more effective than during the day. Additional effects can be produced with color filters and color animation.

26 - Electrical Controls and Switches

The electrical controls and switch gear is the switching and control centre of the fountain installation. It contains all components necessary for electrical safety, protection of persons, for equipment protection and for the automatic switching on and off of the pump and the illumination.

27 - Cover Grate

The cover grate serves for covering the cavity required for accommodating the submersed equipment. It also prevents direct contact with the electrically operated equipment.

 


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